Racial inequality by the term itself means some kind of discriminations made amongst some group of persons in the way or rights and powers and opportunities. Racial inequality can be found everywhere. It is not something which is hidden from anyone rather even in the modern and advance times racial inequality still exists. Racial inequality may be explained as creating some sort of differences in certain groups of peoples in manner of colour, caste, creed, race, religion, beliefs and so on. Racial inequality penetrates even today and is causing harm to mankind at large. Even if there is not any kind of difference in people but due to this racial inequality a sense of difference tends to appears. Racial inequality and racial indiscrimination are two different aspects and are very far from each other. Racial indiscrimination involves or rather include the treatment of racial inequality whereas the term racial inequality means the consequences which one has to face such as inequality in income, education, health facilities and so on.

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Racial inequality is a serious matter of concern. It is causing harm and creating a bad impact for the current generation and for the future generation as well. This kind of racism is further more destroying the mindset of people and living standards. Racial discrimination has been coming along since a long time and there seems no full stop to it and because of racial discrimination which is just growing day by day racial inequality has also started to grow at a rapid speed.

Racial inequality is having a very bad impact in the lives of normal local individuals and though everyone talks about equality and justice and all these so called talks of concern, but in reality nobody actually stands up to make the impossible happen, to make the inequality vanish from the world for once and all. Inequality in any sense causes disaster and when it comes to racial inequality it turns out to be worst. Theses inequalities can be seen in developed countries and nations such as the USA, Europe, UK and so on.

There happens to be inequalities occurring in schools as well with the children who are supposed to be taught equality there. Racial inequality is mostly defined as imbalances or no balance in the distribution of power, economic resources, health facilities, extra benefits, education and so on. There are various reasons for inequality that includes skin tone, height, culture, language and many more. There happens to be made various laws to stop the inequality and discriminations that is occurring every now and then but hardly do anyone follows it and obeys to it.

INDIAN PENAL CODE or IPC, 1860, section 153A says or rather criminalizes the use of any sort of language that promotes or discriminates or supports and sort of discrimination and violence in the grounds of religions, sex, race, caste, creed, gender, colour, language, height, weight, complexion and belief will be punished irrespective of any status or morality.

There happens to be a list of anti discrimination laws made worldwide which are mentioned and stated as follows:-

AUSTRALIA-

  1. Anti-discrimination laws in Australia
  2. Age Discrimination Act 2004
  3. Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Queensland)
  4. Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (New South Wales)
  5. Australian Human Rights Commission Act 1986
  6. Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Victoria)
  7. Disability Discrimination Act 1992
  8. Human Rights Act 2004 (Australian Capital Territory)
  9. Racial and Religious Tolerance Act 2001 (Victoria)
  10. Racial Discrimination Act 1975
  11. Sex Discrimination Act 1984

BOLIVIA-

  1. Law Against Racism and All Forms of Discrimination 2010

BRAZIL-

  1. Anti-discrimination laws in Brazil

CANADA-

  1. Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms 1982
  2. Canadian Employment Equity Act 1986
  3. Canadian Human Rights Act 1977
  4. Ontarians with Disabilities Act 2002
  5. Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms 1976
  6. Canadian Multiculturalism Act 1971
  7. BC Human Rights Code 1996, first version enacted in 1979

COLUMBIA-

  1. Colombian anti-discrimination act 2011 (act number 9882).

EUROPEAN UNION-

  1. The Fundamental Freedoms- Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union Article 21 prohibits all discrimination including on basis of disability, age and sexual orientation. Directive 76/207/EEC on the implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women as regards access to employment, vocational training and promotion, and working conditions Directive 2000/43/EC on Anti-discrimination, Directive 2004/113/EC implementing the principle of equal treatment between men and women in the access to and supply of goods and services, Directive 2006/54/EC on the implementation of the principle of equal opportunities and equal treatment of men and women in matters of employment and occupation.

FRANCE-

  1. Edict of Nantes 1598, 1789, Article 1 from Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

GERMANY-

  1. General Equal Treatment Act of 2006 [de]
  2. Hong Kong
  3. Disability Discrimination Ordinance
  4. Family Status Discrimination Ordinance
  5. Hong Kong Bill of Rights Ordinance
  6. Race Discrimination Ordinance
  7. Sex Discrimination Ordinance

INDIA-

  1. Article 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 of Constitution of India
  2. Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 – Guarantees equal pay for equal work to men and women.
  3. Indian Penal Code, 1860 (Section 153 A) – Criminalises the use of language that promotes discrimination or violence against people on the basis of race, caste, sex, place of birth, religion, gender identity, sexual orientation or any other category.
  4. Mental Healthcare Act, 2017 – Prohibits the denial or refusal to access mental healthcare facilities or services for people on the basis of race, caste, religion, place of birth, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, disability or any other category.
  5. Hindu Succession Act, 1956 – Abolished the “limited owner” status of women who owned property, amended in 2004 to give daughters equal inheritance rights with sons.
  6. Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 – Specifically deals with all kinds of discrimination and hate crimes on the basis of caste.
  7. Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019 – Specifically deals with all kinds of discrimination and hate crimes faced by people on the basis of their gender identity and gender expression.
  8. Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 – Specifically prohibits discrimination and violence against people with physical and/or mental disabilities.
  9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (Prevention and Control) Act, 2017 – Prohibits discrimination and propagation of hate against people with HIV.

INTERNATIONAL-

  1. Equality of Treatment (Accident Compensation) Convention, 1925
  2. Convention against Discrimination in Education, 1960
  3. Equality of Treatment (Social Security) Convention, 1962
  4. Convention concerning Migrations in Abusive Conditions and the Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and Treatment of Migrant Workers, 1975
  5. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979
  6. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1965
  7. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2006
  8. Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958
  9. Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951
  10. Protocol 12 to the European Convention on Human Rights, 2000, Directive 76/207/EEC on the implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women as regards access to employment, vocational training and promotion, and working conditions, Directive 2000/43/EC on Anti-discrimination, Directive 2004/113/EC implementing the principle of equal treatment between men and women in the access to and supply of goods and services, Directive 2006/54/EC on the implementation of the principle of equal opportunities and equal treatment of men and women in matters of employment and occupation
  11. Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union whose Article 21 prohibits all discrimination including on basis of disability, age and sexual orientation
  12. Inter-American Convention against Racism, Racial Discrimination and Related Forms of Intolerance, 2013
  13. Inter-American Convention against All Forms of Discrimination and Intolerance, 2013

ISRAEL-

  1. Employment (Equal Opportunities) Law, 1988
  2. Prohibition of Discrimination in Products, Services and Entry into Places of Entertainment and Public Places Law, 2000

NETHERLANDS-

  1. Anti-discrimination is enforced by Wetboek van Strafrecht, articles 137c-h,[6] and by the Dutch Constitution Law, article 1

NEW ZEALAND-

  1. New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990, section 19
  2. Human Rights Act 1993

NIGERIA-

  1. HIV/AIDS Anti-Discrimination Act 2014. This bill makes it illegal to discriminate against people based on their HIV status.

POLAND-

  1. Statute of Kalisz 1264
  2. Warsaw Confederation Act 1573

RUSSIA-

  1. Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia, 1917

SOUTH AFRICA-

  1. Section Nine of the Constitution of South Africa
  2. Employment Equity Act, 1998
  3. Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act, 2000

UNITED KIMGDOM-

  1. Disability Discrimination Act 1995
  2. Disability Discrimination Act 2005
  3. Equal Pay Act 1970
  4. Equality Act 2006
  5. Equality Act 2010
  6. Race Relations Act 1965
  7. Race Relations Act 1968 and Race Relations Act 1976 amended by the Race Relations Amendment Act 2000
  8. Representation of the People Act 1918
  9. Representation of the People (Equal Franchise) Act 1928
  10. Sex Discrimination Act 1975, amended by the Sex Discrimination (Election Candidates) Act 2002

UNITED STATES-

  1. Age Discrimination Act of 1975
  2. Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967
  3. Alaska’s Anti-Discrimination Act of 1945
  4. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
  5. California Fair Employment and Housing Act
  6. Civil Rights Act of 1866
  7. Civil Rights Act of 1871
  8. Civil Rights Act of 1957
  9. Civil Rights Act of 1964
  10. Civil Rights Act of 1968
  11. Civil Rights Act of 1991
  12. Employment Non-Discrimination Act
  13. Equal Pay Act of 1963
  14. Executive Order 11478
  15. Executive Order 13166 – “Improving Access to Services for Persons with Limited English Proficiency”
  16. Fair Employment Act of 1941
  17. Family & Medical Leave Act of 1993 – enables qualified employees to take prolonged unpaid leave for family and health-related reasons without fear of losing their jobs. For private employers with 15 or more employers
  18. Genetic Information Non discrimination Act
  19. Homeless Bill of Rights
  20. Lloyd–La Follette Act (1912)
  21. Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009
  22. Malby Law of 1895, New York State
  23. Massachusetts Gender Identity Anti-Discrimination Initiative
  24. New Jersey Anti-Bullying Bill of Rights Act
  25. No-FEAR Act
  26. Voting Rights Act of 1965
  27. Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978
  28. Rehabilitation Act of 1973
  29. Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987

People need to understand that racial inequality is not solely and only based on colour but other factors s well such as unemployment rates, educational opportunities, wealth, and poverty rates. In nations like the United States, racial inequality is systemic and quite obvious and openly seen. The above statement means and states that racial disparities are embedded and inserted in the nation’s laws and rules and regulations. Racial inequality stems from the systematic abuse of the skills and perceived capability and intellect of Black people, and the ineffectiveness or lack of efficiency of white leadership and leaders to make the changes necessary to build inclusive and perfect systems. Black employees have suffered at length and a lot via leadership created channels that serve to relegate their career chances.

To conclude, racism is a social problem that everyone still faces in our world today and which is even more than earlier. Different racial groups are still experiencing and facing stereotypes, discrimination, inequality and negativity towards immigrants in their daily lives that impact their mental health, physical health, outlook towards world and wellbeing. Racism and racial discrimination is perception, specific race should not continue to be separated and segregated and put on different sides and bars from each other. In fact, race should not be a valid way or rather any point to categorize as human beings. As racism cannot be prevented fully nor stopped at a larger scale, but by providing interactions, knowledge and understanding of racism and educating and by connecting through different ethnic groups one may reduce the impact of racism and make world a better place to live in as it is now high time people should realise the bad side of inequality through racism done for the young and upcoming generations to breathe freely and happily.

THANK YOU.

{The law mentioned above was searched from- www.antidiscriminationlaws.wikipedia.com }