Global warming is the phenomenon of a gradual increase in the temperature near the earth’s surface respectively. This phenomenon has been observed over the past one or two centuries or even more precisely. This change has disturbed the climatic pattern of the earth as well at a steady speed respectively. However, the concept of global warming is quite controversial but the scientists have provided relevant data in support of the fact that the temperature of the earth is rising constantly and this is henceforth a matter of serious concern to be thought of by all.

There are several causes of global warming, which have a negative effect on humans, plants and animals and the environment as well. These causes may be natural or might be the outcome of human activities too either of the one precisely. In order to curb the issues, it is very important to understand global warming, the phenomenon of increasing average air temperatures near the surface of Earth over the past one to two centuries so that a solution may come up that actually works respectively. Climate scientists have since the mid-20th century gathered detailed observations of various weather phenomena (such as temperatures, precipitation, and storms) and of related influences on climate precisely (such as ocean currents and the atmosphere’s chemical composition) precisely. These data indicate that Earth’s climate has changed over almost every conceivable timescale since the beginning of geologic time and that human activities since at least the beginning of the Industrial Revolution have a growing influence over the pace and extent of present-day climate change respectively.

Giving voice to a growing conviction of most of the scientific community, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was formed in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) respectively. The IPCC’s Sixth Assessment Report (AR6), published in 2021, noted that the best estimate of the increase in global average surface temperature between 1850 and 2019 was 1.07 °C (1.9 °F) precisely. An IPCC special report produced in 2018 noted that human beings and their activities have been responsible for a worldwide average temperature increase between 0.8 and 1.2 °C (1.4 and 2.2 °F) since preindustrial times, and most of the warming over the second half of the 20th century could be attributed to human activities and the negative impacts of global warming and mostly the human beings are only responsible for the same respectively.

AR6 produced a series of global climate predictions based on modelling five greenhouse gas emission scenarios that accounted for future emissions, mitigation (severity reduction) measures, and uncertainties in the model projections as well. Some of the main uncertainties include the precise role of feedback processes and the impacts of industrial pollutants known as aerosols, which may offset some warming and other few factors as well. The lowest-emissions scenario, which assumed steep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions beginning in 2015, predicted that the global mean surface temperature would increase between 1.0 and 1.8 °C (1.8 and 3.2 °F) by 2100 relative to the 1850–1900 average respectively. This range stood in stark contrast to the highest-emissions scenario, which predicted that the mean surface temperature would rise between 3.3 and 5.7 °C (5.9 and 10.2 °F) by 2100 based on the assumption that greenhouse gas emissions would continue to increase throughout the 21st century and even further if not controlled precisely. The intermediate-emissions scenario, which assumed that emissions would stabilize by 2050 before declining gradually, projected an increase of between 2.1 and 3.5 °C (3.8 and 6.3 °F) by 2100 respectively.

The scenarios referred to above depend mainly on future concentrations of certain trace gases, called greenhouse gases that have been injected into the lower atmosphere in increasing amounts through the burning of fossil fuels for industry, transportation, and residential uses and other similar uses as well. Modern global warming is the result of an increase in magnitude of the so called greenhouse effect, a warming of Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere caused by the presence of water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, and other greenhouse gases as well. In 2014 the IPCC first reported that concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides in the atmosphere surpassed those found in ice cores dating back 800,000 years or even more respectively.

Of all these gases, carbon dioxide is the most important, both for its role in the greenhouse effect and for its role in the human economy too and every individual needs to realise this too as soon as possible. It has been estimated that, at the beginning of the industrial age in the mid-18th century, carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere were roughly 280 parts per million (ppm) precisely. By the end of 2021 they had risen to 416 ppm, and, if fossil fuels continue to be burned at current rates, they are projected to reach 550 ppm by the mid-21st century essentially, a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations in 300 years as well.

A vigorous debate is in progress over the extent and seriousness of rising surface temperatures, the effects of past and future warming on human life, and the need for action to reduce future warming and deal with its consequences as well which is going to be damn difficult to control and handle respectively. It considers the causes of rising near-surface air temperatures, the influencing factors, the process of climate research and forecasting the possible ecological and social impacts of rising temperatures, and the public policy developments since the mid-20th century as well.

Causes of Global Warming- Following are the major causes of global warming:

Man-made Causes of Global Warming

  1. Deforestation– Plants are the main source of oxygen for the entire planet and environment respectively. They take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen thereby maintaining environmental balance in a very precise and systematic manner precisely. Forests are being depleted for many domestic and commercial purposes and this is wrong as it hampers everything in the environment precisely. This has led to an environmental imbalance, thereby giving rise to global warming at a larger scale as well.
  2. Use of Vehicles– The use of vehicles, even for a very short distance results in various gaseous emissions which hampers the environment at the larger scale respectively. Vehicles burn fossil fuels which emit a large amount of carbon dioxide and other toxins into the atmosphere resulting in a temperature increase and thus causing global warming precisely.
  3. Chlorofluorocarbon– With the excessive use of air conditioners and refrigerators, human has been adding CFCs into the environment which affects the atmospheric ozone layer at a very vast scale respectively. The ozone layer protects the earth surface from the harmful ultraviolet rays emitted by the sun respectively. The CFCs have led to ozone layer depletion making way for the ultraviolet rays, thereby increasing the temperature of the earth and hampering the environment and causing global warming precisely.
  4. Industrial Development- With the advent of industrialization, the temperature of the earth has been increasing rapidly without any kind of control in it as well. The harmful emission from the factories adds to the increasing temperature of the earth and also adds up to be a source of global warming.

In 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change reported that the increase in the global temperature between 1880 and 2012 has been 0.9 degrees Celsius respectively. The increase is 1.1 degrees Celsius when compared to the pre-industrial mean temperature precisely.

  • Agriculture– Various farming activities produce carbon dioxide and methane gas in huge amount as well. These add to the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and increase the temperature of the earth as well thus being a source of global warming precisely.
  • Overpopulation– An increase in population means more people breathing and more oxygen required and more carbon dioxide omitted precisely. This leads to an increase in the level of carbon dioxide, the primary gas causing global warming, in the atmosphere and thus being a reason for increasing global warming precisely.

Natural Causes of Global Warming

  • Volcanoes– Volcanoes are one of the largest natural contributors to global warming and is one of the most common factors of global warming as well. The ash and smoke emitted during volcanic eruptions goes out into the atmosphere and affects the climate at a larger scale respectively.
  • Water Vapour– Water vapour is a kind of greenhouse gas and is also proven as well. Due to the increase in the earth’s temperature, more water gets evaporated from the water bodies and stays in the atmosphere adding to global warming and thus polluting the environment precisely.
  • Melting Permafrost– Permafrost is frozen soil that has environmental gases trapped in it for several years and is present below Earth’s surface precisely. It is present in glaciers respectively. As the permafrost melts, it releases the gases back into the atmosphere, increasing Earth’s temperature and thus adding up to be a source of global warming respectively.
  • Forest Blazes– Forest blazes or forest fires emit a large amount of carbon-containing smoke which is quite harmful as well. These gases are released into the atmosphere and increase the earth’s temperature resulting in global warming precisely.

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Effects of Global Warming- Following are the major effects of global warming:

  1. Rise in Temperature– Global warming has led to an incredible increase in earth’s temperature past a lot of time. Since 1880, the earth’s temperature has increased by ~1 degrees and this is a matter of concern as well. This has resulted in an increase in the melting of glaciers, which have led to an increase in the sea level as well. This could have devastating effects on coastal region of the entire planet earth and is something to be taken under consideration precisely.
  2. Threats to the Ecosystem– Global warming has affected the coral reefs that can lead to the loss of plant and animal lives at a huge scale respectively. Increase in global temperatures has made the fragility of coral reefs even worse and is just being worst day by day.
  3. Climate Change– Global warming has led to a change in climatic conditions as well. There are droughts at some places and floods at some which leads to heavy imbalance precisely. This climatic imbalance is the result of global warming only.
  4. Spread of Diseases– Global warming leads to a change in the patterns of heat and humidity at a wider scale as well. This has led to the movement of mosquitoes that carry and spread diseases thus spreading diseases as well.
  5. High Mortality Rates– Due to an increase in floods, tsunamis and other natural calamities, the average death toll usually increases and takes high jumps as well. Also, such events can bring about the spread of diseases that can hamper human life and other life as well.
  6. Loss of Natural Habitat– A global shift in the climate leads to the loss of habitats of several plants and animals and even creates imbalance also. In this case, the animals need to migrate from their natural habitat and many of them even become extinct due to this reason of global warming as well. This is yet another major impact of global warming on biodiversity precisely.

Effects of global warming- Main effects of global warming

There are two major effects of global warming:

  1. Increase of temperature on the earth by about 3° to 5° C (5.4° to 9° Fahrenheit) by the year 2100 respectively.
  2. Rise of sea levels by at least 25 meters (82 feet) by the year 2100 respectively.

More details and secondary effects of global warming:

  1. Increasing global temperatures are the primary effects of global warming being caused. However they are causing a broad range of additional, secondary effects as well :
  2. Sea levels are rising due to thermal expansion of the ocean, in addition to melting of land ice precisely.
  3. Amounts and patterns of precipitation are changing at a steady speed. The total annual power of hurricanes has already increased markedly since 1975 because their average intensity and average duration have increased too (in addition, there has been a high correlation of hurricane power with tropical sea-surface temperature).
  4. Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns have also global effects on extreme weather events such as: They increase the frequency, duration, and intensity of floods, droughts, heat waves, and tornadoes and other things similar to it. Other effects of global warming include higher or lower agricultural yields, further glacial retreat, reduced summer stream flows, species extinctions and so on as the list just continues. As further effects of global warming, diseases like malaria are returning into areas where they have been extinguished earlier precisely.

Effects of global warming:

Muir glacier retreat– Glacier retreat of Muir glacier: Comparison photos of Muir and Riggs Glaciers in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Muir glacier, parts of which were greater than 65 meters thick in 1941, has retreated out of the image in 2004 (towards the upper left) as an effect of global warming precisely. The distance to the visible Riggs glacier in 2004 is ~3 km. During this time, the Muir Glacier retreated more than 20 KM.

Even if the global warming effects would convince mankind to stop emitting greenhouse gases, the global warming is expected to continue past 2100 because carbon dioxide (CO2) has an estimated atmospheric lifetime of 50 to 200 years respectively.

Some of the many solutions are as listed below:

  1. Planting trees– It is one of the best way or solution to stop global warming and is also the simple way at the same time as well.
  2. Creating more sustainable means of transportation, drive a fuel-efficient vehicle– Driving cars which omits less fuel can help to save the environment at a larger scale and thus is also one of the solutions to stop global warming.
  3. Judicious use of electricity, power your home with renewable energy– To lessen the use of power electricity as much as possible will help in being a solution to stop global warming precisely.
  4. Divest from the use of coal– This can be one of the best way and solution to control global warming as well.
  5. Advocate the importance of a healthy planet– One should always try to improve the environment and this mindset is automatically going to be a solution to stop global warming respectively.
  6. Reduce water waste– Reduction of water waste as much as possible is one of the best solution to stop or control global warming.
  7. Shrink your carbon profile as much as possible.

9 Ways to Stop Global Warming

Here are 9 simple things you can do and how much carbon dioxide you’ll save doing them.

  1. Change a light– Replacing one regular light bulb with a compact fluorescent light bulb will save 150 pounds of carbon dioxide a year respectively and this will act quite quickly precisely.
  2. Drive less – Walk, bike, car pool or take mass transit more often as far as possible. You will save one pound of carbon dioxide for every mile you do not drive! This is also one of the most important solution to control global warming as well.
  3. Recycle more– You can save 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide per year by recycling just half of your household waste precisely.
  4. Check your tires– Keeping your tires inflated properly can improve your gas mileage by more than 3 percent respectively. Every gallon of gasoline saved keeps 20 pounds of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere.
  5. Use less hot water– It takes a lot of energy to heat water which leads to global warming. Use less hot water by taking shorter and cooler showers and washing your clothes in cold or warm instead of hot water respectively (more than 500 pounds of carbon dioxide saved per year).
  6. Avoid products with a lot of packaging– You can save 1,200 pounds of carbon dioxide if you reduce your garbage by 10 percent respectively.
  7. Adjust your thermostat– Moving your thermostat down just 2 degrees in winter and up 2 degrees in summer could save about 2,000 pounds of carbon dioxide a year precisely.
  8. Plant a tree– A single tree will absorb one ton of carbon dioxide over its lifetime and is the quickest way to control or stop global warming.
  9. Turn off electronic devices– Simply turning off your television, DVD player, stereo, and computer, when you are not using them, will save you thousands of pounds of carbon dioxide a year respectively.

THANK YOU.

[The detail mentioned above is taken from Wikipedia].